Parasites of water: Cryptosporidium and Giadia, main causes of diseases

Cryptosporidium and Giadia and water
It is found all over the world, Cryptosporidium Parvum (often called simply "crypto") and Giardia Lamblia ("Giardia") are common protozoan parasites that are two of the main causes of diseases of water.
What is a protozoa?
Protozoa are unicellular microscopic organisms that are often pests, but can also live outside a host. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that protozoa are "able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also allows serious infections to develop from a single organization." 1
What is a parasite?
"Parasite" is a general term that refers to any body that survives at the expense of its host. The CDC defines the parasites as "an organization that lives on or in a host organism and feeds on or at the expense of its host. There are three large classes of parasites that can cause diseases in humans: protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites. 2
What are Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis, and how do they spread?
Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis are two common gastrointestinal diseases caused by the ingestion of water contaminated with cryptosporidium or Giardia. The parasites are fixed to the intestines of humans and animals, and are then transmitted in the environment through food or person contact with the excrement of humans or animals infected.
Difficult to eradicate
Cryptosporidium and Giadia are protected by chlorine-resistant outer envelopes (oocysts and cysts, respectively) that allow long periods of life parasites outside their original host. The cysts of Giardia can survive several months in cold water 3, while cryptosporidium oocysts can survive for months in the soil in fresh and dark conditions and up to a year in water with low turbidity. 4
Disseminate easily
The numbers are alarming: millions of oocysts and infectious cysts can be excreted in one seat, but it is enough to swallow a small amount of water (as little as ten cysts of Giardia) 6 to infect a human. 7, 8 Thus, it is easy to understand why a contagious person suffering from diarrhea, a layer that flees or an "intestinal accident" too common in a swimming pool, a spa or a small lake may present such a potential danger for health.
In addition to the water as a source of transmission, it is important to note that food, earth, door handles, faucets, toys or all that is commonly shared or touched can also be contaminated. The ease with which these organizations can propagate shows why it is so important to observe hygiene practices this summer, especially when handling food during festivals and picnics outdoor, telephones sharing And cameras, or even after toilet outlets.
Number of reported cases
In 2012, there were 15,223 reported cases of Giardiase 9 and 8,008 cases of cryptosporidiosis. ten
Contact sources
Water is the most common mode of transmission. The parasites that cause cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis can be found in almost all water sources, including:
Streams
some lakes
Swimming pools
Spas
Well 11
Is public water supply also vulnerable?
Even if raw water like lakes and streams is a major source of contamination, public water supplies are not immune to these parasites. Tap water can also be affected. 12
According to the State University of Ohio:
These parasites are not effectively controlled by chlorination or other disinfectants. The chlorine used to kill bacteria in the municipal water is not added to a sufficient concentration or for a duration sufficient to kill Giardia, crypto and cyclospora resistant to chlorine. The filtration of water is the current practice for controlling these parasites; As a result, municipal programs for drinking water are essential for protection. When municipal water is not available, boil for at least 1 minute is an effective method for controlling these parasites in water supply. 13
The Saskatchewan Water Security Agency Note:
These two parasites [Cryptosporidium and Giadia] are found in the water of lakes and streams, and in some sources of groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Communities that obtain their drinking water from these sources of surface water and do not properly treat their water can introduce the parasites into their water supply system. These organisms are both very resistant to chlorine and other disinfectants used to kill bacteria and viruses in drinking water. In addition, Cryptosporidium and Giardia exist in the form of oocysts (cysts) or spores in the environment and are small enough to pass certain types of filters used in conventional water treatment. 14
Was there notable and widespread epidemics?
Milwaukee, April 1993
The largest epidemic of water from history has occurred in 1993. It is estimated that 403,000 residents of Milwaukee have suffered from aqueous diarrhea due to cryptosporidium oocysts found in the public water supply network of the city. . Four thousand were hospitalized and more than 100 died. One of the city's water treatment plants has been closed temporarily, but at the time when the boiling notice of water has been announced, the pathogen was in the aqueduct network of The city for more than two weeks. 16
The city of Milwaukee has since spent more than $ 200 million to modernize the city's water treatment and distribution system. Turbidity (or nebulosity, water suspension particle concentration) is now permanently measured and particle counters have been installed on the city's water filters. 17
The 1993 crisis has demonstrated the need for greater awareness and understanding of cryptosporidium as a risk to public health. Other lessons and needs identified included the analysis of the source and finished water for Cryptosporidium, the realization of environmental studies and the important role that the media could play in the communication of important public health messages during The epidemic. 18
What are the symptoms and effects on the health of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis?
Similar to what you would call a serious case of food poisoning or a vilaine "belly bug", the two diseases have very similar symptoms, which may include:
Nausea or aqueous diarrhea
Cramps or stomach pains
Lack of appetite
Weightloss
Bloating
Nausea and vomiting
Mild fever
Tired
Flatulence
Headache 19
Even if the symptoms are fundamentally the same, the period of time between the initial ingestion of the parasite and the symptoms manifesting is slightly different between the two diseases:
Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis can appear within a week of infection and last for up to two weeks, although they may come and go sporadically up to one month 20. There is no specific treatment for cryptosporidiosis, but drugs are available to help treat the symptoms 21.
Symptoms of giardiasis may take a little longer to appear (up to three weeks) and may persist for two to six weeks or longer 22. Treatments are available for giardiasis. 23
Some people harbor parasites but have no effect. Most cases go away on their own, but if you think you have cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, it's always a good idea to seek the advice and care your doctor or health care professional of your choice.
Who is most at risk of serious or severe cases of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis?
Again, many people infected with these parasites will not notice any symptoms or do not feel sick. However, the Saskatchewan Water Security Agency notes that certain groups such as children and pregnant women are more likely to develop more serious illness. 24
People at risk of serious illness after being infected include:
People with AIDS
People with cancer
Patients transplanted organ or bone marrow taking drugs to suppress the immune system
People born with a weakened immune system 25
Are the cases more frequent at certain times of the year?
The cases reported are generally highest during the warmer months when more people are exposed to noise while enjoying the water for recreation outdoors. In 2011-2012, the CDC reported a peak of occurrence of giardiasis from early summer to early fall. 26 During this same period, the onset of symptoms of cryptosporidiosis has been multiplied by 4.4 at the end of the summer. 27
How can I reduce my risk of getting infected?
The Ohio State University suggests doing the following to reduce your chances of suffering from the effects of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis:
OUTSIDE
Wash your hands with warm water and soap before eating or drinking.
When you are swimming in a lake, river or stream, try not to swallow the water.
Drink water from sources such as municipal water wherever possible.
If the treated water is not available, boil water for at least 1 minute before drinking. 25
AT HOME
Wash your hands with warm water and soap before eating or drinking.
Wash all raw fruits and vegetables under running water from a treated source.
When you drink milk and juice, use only pasteurized products.
Use a vegetable brush to scrub the outside of fruits and vegetables.
Be aware of public alerts boiling and follow the recommendations. 28
PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS AND WATER PARKS
In addition, for those whose idea of ​​"living rough" on vacation involves afternoon lazing in their hotel pool, the CDC notes that a third of epidemics treated recreational water-borne diseases between 2000 and 2014 occurred in hotel pools or hot tubs according to a report in the weekly CDC report on morbidity and mortality.
Consequently, the CDC suggests taking the following precautions:
Do not swim and do not let your children swim if they have diarrhea. If Crypto is the cause of diarrhea, wait 2 weeks after diarrhea stops for swimming.
Check inspection scores pools, hot tubs and water play areas.
Before entering the water, use a test strip of your local retailer or pool supplies store to check if the pH and bromine or free chlorine of the water are correct.
Do not take the water.
Take children to the toilet every hour and change the layers in a changing area and away from the water. 29
Your best defense is a final barrier system
As you can see, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are literally everywhere and have a real problem not only for raw water sources, but also for modern water supply systems. Since Cryptosporidium and Giardia resist chlorine and boiling water requires a lot of time and work (not to mention the supply of small amounts of water at a time), your best defense is to set up a Final barrier system to purify your drinking water daily. based.
When selecting a system, inspect the test results with respect to parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Below you will find information about the Black Berkey ® purification items.
Results of Cryptoporidium Reduction Test and Giardia Reduction of the Black Berkey Purification Element ®
Drink with confidence: Independent laboratory tests show that our elements are extremely effective in eliminating these parasitic contaminants. Indeed, no cyst has been detected in the effluent of the tested system for both contaminants. This is important given the fact that the consumption of only 10 cysts of Giardia can cause an infection. 30
Cryptosporidium
The minimum standard of elimination or inactivation of the United States Environmental Protection for Cryptosporidium is 99%, a reduction of 2 log. The Black Berkey ® purification elements exceed the laboratory detectable limits, eliminating Cryptosporidium at more than 99.997% (Log 4.6). It's more than double the EPA standard, by log 2.6.
Cryptosporidium
Giardia
The minimum elimination or inactivation of the EPA for Giardia Lamblia is 99.9%, a reduction of 3 log. Black Berkey ® Purification Elements exceed the detectable laboratory limits, after being tested to reduce Giardia cysts by more than 99.994%, or 4.6 log. This also exceeds the EPA standard.
giardia
Consult the full information in the Knowledge Base.
The lower line
Berkey ® systems equipped with Black Berkey ® purification elements eliminate up to 99.999% of the viruses and 99.9999% of pathogenic bacteria, while eliminating or significantly reducing trihalomethanes, inorganic minerals, heavy metals, products. Pharmaceuticals, pesticides, VOCs, petroleum products, perfluorized chemicals, rust, silt, sediment and even radiological products. Enjoy clean and delicious purified water that holds healthy minerals whose body needs for less than 2 cents per gallon of purified water. A pair of black Berkey ® purification elements lasts up to 6,000 gallons, about 5 years with typical use.
Find out more about Black Berkey ® purification elements by reading these related items or by visiting our knowledge base:
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The newest lead water test of Berkey ® systems is now available
Test Results Black Berkey Purification Elements ®
THE REFERENCES:
(1) CDC.GOV: About pests
(30) Outbreaks of Giardiase in the United States, 1971-2011
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